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Bio Pesticides are certain types of pecticides derived from such natural materials as animals,plants,becteria and certain minerals. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered biopesticides. At the end of 2001,there were approximately 195 registered bio pestisides active ingredients and 780 products. Biopesticides fall into three major classes :
- Microbial pesticides consist of a microorganism (e.g. a bacterium,fungus,virus or protozoan) as the active ingredients.Microbial pestisides can control many diffrent kinds of pests, although each separate active ingredient is relatively specific for its targate pest[s]. for example there are fungi thet control certain weeds and other fungi that kill specific insects.
- The most widely used bio pesticides are subspecies and strain of Bacillus thuringiensis, or BT. Each strain of this bacterium produces a diffrent mix of proteins, and specifically kills one or a few related species of insect larvae,while some Bt's control moth larvae found on plants. orher Bt's are specific for larvae of flies and mosquitoes. The targate insect species are determined by whether the particular Bt produces a protein that can bind to a larval gut receptor, there by causing the insect larvae to starve
- Plant-Incorporated-Protectants(PIPs) are pesticidal substances thet plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. For example, Scientists can take the gene for the Bt Pectisidal prottein and introduce the gene into the plants own genetic material. then the plant instead of the Bt bacterium, manufacturers the sustance that destroys the pest. The protein and its genetic material, but not the plant itself are regulated by EPA.
- Biochemical pestisides are naturally occuring sustance that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms. Coventional pesticides, by contrast are generally synthetic materials that directly kill or inactivate the pests. Biochemical pesticides include substance such as insect sex pheromones that interfere with mating as well as various scented plant extract that attract insect pests to trap' Because it is sometime difficult to determine whether a sustance meet the criteria for classification as a biochemical pesticide, EPA has established a special committee to make such decisions.
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